Monday, May 12


Cigarette smoking and associated risk of multiple sclerosis

Exposure to cigarette smoke is emerging as an environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS).

We investigated the possible association between environmental tobacco smoke, its cumulative exposure, and MS risk.

Our results demonstrate that cigarette smoking is significantly associated with an increased risk for MS. The risk effects of smoking were more noticeable in male patients and at higher tobacco doses.

Quality of life and employment in persons with multiple sclerosis.
In the current study, in an effort to examine the effects of type of employment upon quality of life (QOL), employment was divided into three categories (full-time employment, part-time employment, and unemployment).  Results of the study emphasize the need for the provision of quality vocational services to persons with MS. Issues such as quality vocational services, timeliness, and the importance of continued work are discussed.

The experience of being grounded: a phenomenological study of living with a wheelchair.
The purpose of this existential-phenomenological study was to investigate the experience of being in a wheelchair. It was a prelude to a pilot study examining the effect of "seated" Tai Chi.  The accommodations from the ADA Act have greatly facilitated the independence for those who are disabled, yet many obstacles remain.

Monoclonal Antibodies in Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are used as therapeutics in a number of disciplines in medicine like oncology, rheumtalogy, gastroenterology, dermatology, and transplant rejection prevention.

Post-Tysabri (natalizumab) clinical and radiological findings in a cohort of multiple sclerosis patients: 12-month follow-up.
There is an urgent need to identify the best strategies to prevent the loss of natalizumab (N) beneficial effects after its suspension. The objective is to evaluate the clinical and radiological disease activity and to test the efficacy of immunomodulatory/immunosuppressive drugs (IT) after N suspension

No Differences Observed among Multiple Clinical S1P1 Receptor Agonists (Functional Antagonists) in S1P1 Receptor Down-regulation and Degradation.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive metabolite with pleiotropic effects on multiple cellular processes in health and disease. Responses elicited by S1P are a result of binding to five specific G-protein-coupled receptors.

Matrix metalloproteinases and their pathological upregulation in multiple sclerosis: an overview.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteases associated with extracellular matrix remodeling.

Standing Data Disproves Biomechanical Mechanism for Balance-Based Torso-Weighting.
To test a proposed mechanism for the effect of Balance-Based Torso-Weighting (BBTW) in people with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls. The application of light weights to the trunk may result in a biomechanical shift of postural sway in the direction of weighting, mechanically facilitating maintenance of center of mass over the base of support.  If BBTW worked via a biomechanical shift of the center of mass, COP changes should match the direction of greatest weighting with BBTW. Our data allowed us to reject this hypothesis. Future research may explore alternative mechanisms of action underlying this intervention

Impairment of JCV-specific T-cell response by corticotherapy: effect on PML-IRIS management?

Evolution of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in an aquaporin-4 IgG-positive patient.

[Genetic impairments of Wnt signaling pathways in hereditary high bone mass syndrome and sclerostosis diseases].
Investigations of hereditary skeletal diseases, such as high bone mass syndrome and sclerostosis diseases, have opened the door to understand molecular mechanisms for bone formation.

Steroid-responsive hearing impairment in NMO-IgG/aquaporin-4-antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and associated NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are neuroinflammatory diseases that frequently result in severe neurological disabilities.

Connexin 43 astrocytopathy linked to rapidly progressive multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) occasionally have an extremely aggressive and debilitating disease course; however, its molecular basis is unknown. This study aimed to determine a relationship between connexin (Cx) pathology and disease aggressiveness in Asian patients with MS and NMO.  These findings suggest that autoantibody-independent astrocytic Cx43 loss may relate to disease aggressiveness and distal oligodendrogliopathy in both MS and NMO.

PRISM: A Novel Research Tool to Assess the Prevalence of Pseudobulbar Affect Symptoms across Neurological Conditions.
Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US) prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM) was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.  Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic/antidepressant medications. These data underscore a need for greater awareness, recognition, and diagnosis of PBA.

Higher Relative Risk for Multiple Sclerosis in a Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes Population: Analysis From DPV Data Base.
ObjectiveType 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis (MS) are typical autoimmune diseases in children and young adults.

Mesenchymal stromal-cell transplants induce oligodendrocyte progenitor migration and remyelination in a chronic demyelination model.
Demyelinating disorders such as leukodystrophies and multiple sclerosis are neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of myelin that may lead toward a chronic demyelination of the brain's white matter, impairing normal axonal conduction velocity and ultimately causing neurodegeneration.

Giant pilomatricoma in a patient with tuberous sclerosis, both diagnosed in the adult life.
Pilomatricoma is a relatively common benign skin neoplasm originating from the hair follicle matrix cells. β-Catenin is a subunit of the cadherin protein complex.

On the estimation and correction of bias in local atrophy estimations using example atrophy simulations.
Brain atrophy is considered an important marker of disease progression in many chronic neuro-degenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS).

Distribution and expression of fibroblast-specific protein chemokine CCL21 and chemokine receptor CCR7 in renal allografts.
We aimed to characterize the expression and distribution of the fibroblast surface protein (FSP), the chemokine CC-ligand 21 (CCL21) secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine CC-chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) in renal allograft biopsy specimens obtained from patients after transplantation.

Increased plasma interleukin-32 expression in patients with neuromyelitis optica.
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The pathogenesis of NMO remains unclear. IL-32 is emerging as a critical molecule in the pathophysiology of immune-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. Whether IL-32 levels are elevated in NMO patients is unclear. We aimed to determine whether IL-32 levels are elevated in NMO patients and explore its relationship with IL-6, IL-17, and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores. 
In summary, plasma IL-32α levels are associated with inflammatory responses in NMO patients.